### Principle Of Desynchronization And MASK Model of Nested Universes

Our model of universe is such that, for each entity, there is a spacetime that it experiences as well as interacts with on a continual basis and has its space and time experiences completely synchronized with all other entities that do the same with this spacetime. In fact, spacetime is the emergent phenomenon of all the events that all these entities participate in. If these other entities are moving with considerably lesser speeds than that of speed of light with respect to first entity, all these entities will experience approximately same duration of time and space as that experienced by first entity (Newtonian classical physics); if these are moving with respect to first one with speeds approaching speed of light, they will experience different durations of time and space than the first one, but these different durations shall be related mathematically to those experienced by first one in a completely deterministic and consistent way, and combined duration of time and space of all these entities shall be same (Einsteinian classical physics).

However, when there is another entity that experiences a spacetime that is not exchanging information about events happening therein with the spacetime being experienced by first entity, then these two entities will be experiencing desynchronized space and time durations and there shall not be any predictive relationship between these durations. Even combined space and time duration experienced by one entity shall be probabilistically distributed against that experienced by other.[1]

We can consider two *parts* of a spacetime as being desynchronized from each other or we can say that these are two *distinct *spacetimes. In what follows we will adhere to nomenclature of distinct spacetimes, as it is more vivid and explicit.

An observer, who belongs to spacetime that is desynchronized with spacetime of quantum system, considers the quantum spacetime, as a whole – like globally, as internal information is not available and it is viewing it from *outside. *Einstein’s considerations of observations from an observer embedded inside the spacetime led him to devise rules of physics from *locality point of view*. It’s like studying the earth surface while being earth bound. There is no other way out for the observer who is immersed in the spacetime it is studying. Local nature of spacetime is what is available to him. [2] Combine this with the principle of relativity that all observers discern exactly same laws of physics from their experiences in their spacetime, and one gets all the ingredients for Einstein’s theory that is encompassing all effects of classical physics. Thus we have *local* coordinate systems being available to different observers and *transformation *rules among them to guide us to surmise mathematical relations between physically measured quantities along with constraint of *similar structure of laws *for different observers. This constraint is severe enough to give us all the laws that are followed in classical physics. In fact, philosophically, fact that this restraint, along with synchronization (leading to possibility of transformation rules) of spacetimes felt by observed and different observers, is enough to write down all the rules of the evolution of any classical physical system is very satisfying as we do not need to postulate any other axiom. This also means that, if this postulate is enough then synchronization that is at the root of this postulate must be at the root of another ubiquitous principle in classical physics – principle of least action.

We now propose that desynchronization between spacetimes of quantum system and observer, along with *equality of all the observers* is enough to lay down *almost* all the rules of quantum physics.

Einstein not only based his theory on synchronization of spacetime being experienced by two observers, he also ended up bestowing on spacetime a very physical nature of dynamical agent. While Newton’s spacetime was ‘passive’ and equivalent to providing a background for physical events to unfold, without actively participating in any of the events, for Einstein, spacetime was ‘active’ and directing material bodies how to move while getting itself modified by their movements. By making spacetime active, Einstein provided a natural explanation for effect of gravity extending over *vacuum* as well as for existence of inertia on account of far off bodies of matter.[2] Spacetime is active in our picture too; difference being that we envision two observers to have completely different, mutually independent, desynchronized spacetimes, which is not allowed in Einstein’s scheme of things.

While we say this, we must also note that in case of black hole, Einsteinian physics also declares impossibility of exchange of information between events interior to black hole and exterior to black hole i.e. in our spacetime. However, impossibility of any synchronization protocol between these two has not been commented upon, a surprise as effectively Einstein’s treatment of spacetime begins with assumption of synchronization and once unavailable *ab-initio *in case of black hole physics, its effect on phenomenology of spacetime should have been thoroughly investigated. As per our model, interior of black hole should be treated using quantum physics rules, however *macro* this object may be. This also states that we consider *scale *not to be material in deciding the situation wherein quantum physics kicks in; *its only desynchronization*.

One may also note in passing that, due to this, classical physics and quantum physics *shall never meet!* In case of synchronization we have classical physics, in case of desynchronization we have quantum physics. A system is quantum for an observer outside its spacetime and is classical for an observer inside its spacetime. This, with the observation of Einstein quoted in the beginning – physical states of the space (*spacetime*) itself as ultimate physical reality – explains our model. For us this is a M statement.

To proceed to model the physical universe, first we note that though two spacetimes may be desynchronized with each other, they will have *effects *on each other in a *global way. *Consider again a black hole. What is happening inside the black hole will never be known to outside observer, and internal spacetime of black hole is completely desynchronized with outside spacetime[3]. However, effect of presence of black hole is quite conspicuous on surrounding spacetime. It must be realized that these effects, however, are not dependent on complete details of individual events of internal spacetime but are governed by global aspects of this internal spacetime of black hole. These global aspects do not tell us evolution of internal spacetime or its individual events that get completely desynchronized but tell us about those aspects that are of *overall wholesome nature of *internal spacetime.

Second note to take is that embedded spacetimes do not mean that there will be closed time loops in the internal spacetime. Again imagine a black hole kind of spacetime. There is nothing non-physical about closed three-dimensional part of spacetime off course.

What about the effects of outside spacetime on this embedded spacetime? We know that we can have quantum systems lying in the electromagnetic fields created by huge *classical *magnets in our laboratories. This does create influences on the evolution of quantum system. We can imagine its effects like that of an electromagnetic field inside a closed, hollow sphere made of conducting material wherein outside electromagnetic field affects internal space by creating constant field inside. In any case, effects of embedded spacetimes onto outside spacetime and vice versa are *global *and *wholesome *in nature and do not pass on information about individual events.

Internal spacetime is physically active in exactly the same way as in Einstein’s scheme of things for an observer who is embedded in the spacetime. For an observer who is outside the spacetime of quantum system, will expect quantum spacetime to be ‘active’, influencing the particles of matter embedded in it, and simultaneously getting influenced by these. For a case of expanding quantum spacetime in observer’s spacetime (like in *interference phenomenon*), imagine expansion by means of *spacetime waves *– akin to gravitational waves in the spacetime fabric for the observer embedded inside the spacetime. It will employ *Huygens’s construction* for development of internal spacetime and also expect to ‘interfere’ it with itself in situation where it is expected to expand in a way there is superposition of ‘two internal spacetimes waves’. In fact, expansion of spacetime of quantum system the way a ‘wave’ expands, following exactly the Huygens’s construction, creates all interference as well as diffraction phenomenon in appropriate situation. Internal spacetime wave being exactly akin to gravitational waves has capability of spacetime to ‘tell matter how to move’. This ensures that a particle undergoing these phenomena is confined to spacetime created thus. Internal spacetime will direct the particle inside the system in the same way as that is done for classical Einsteinian system and outside observer will never find inside particle in a location at a time that is not allowed by internal spacetime.

Finally we model action of observation on a quantum system as breaking into the internal spacetime of the system by the outside observer, leading to synchronization of internal spacetime with outside, making the two spacetimes as a single whole. This is modeling *collapse of wave function. *Whether actual observation is made or not is not material, any possibility created to realize exact event of internal spacetime means that internal spacetime has been broken into, synchronized with and quantum effects wiped out.

To summarize, we postulate that quantum system has a desynchronized and independent spacetime embedded inside external spacetime to which observer belongs, and that two spacetimes affect each other in a *global *way. These spacetimes have dynamical effects on matter and are *agents of physical effects *in an Einsteinian way. Till the observation is made, observer predicts the evolution of quantum spacetime in a probabilistic way and act of observation is akin to breaking into the spacetime of quantum system leading to synchronization.

We are now going to go a step further and propose that even elementary particles are nothing but embedded spacetimes – that are independent and desynchronized with outside spacetime. This means that these particles are going to be *extended objects* for outside world of observer, with their internal spacetime desynchronized. Standard model of dimension-less *point* like nature of elementary particles endowed with physical characteristics like mass, charge and spin or angular momentum is *so* *unphysical *when one tries to imagine them. Only reason why this zero-dimensional image of an elementary particle has been accepted by physicists in general is due to belief that extended picture of an elementary particle necessarily leads to speeds of internal *parts/ vibrations *higher than speed of light. We propose that this objection goes away once desynchronization is understood. This would be shown mathematically in the section on modeling of desynchronization below.

Given the analysis above, we envision spacetimes of these particles embedded in (and desynchronized from) spacetime of observer. Off course we do have situations wherein we have spacetimes representing elementary particles embedded in (and desynchronized from) spacetime of quantum system that itself is embedded in (and desynchronized from) spacetime of external observer. Thus we have a model of nested universes (if we refer each individually existing spacetime as separate *universe*). We christen this model as MASK model of Nested Universes.

Before we move on to next section, lets give ourselves one geometric picture for the model. We can create an image of bubbles in an encompassing sea. These bubbles are quantum systems with internal fluid akin to internal spacetime, and outside sea is the surrounding spacetime of observer. We have elementary particles as bubbles too. Thus we may have bubbles inside bubbles. For each particle there is a continual process of expansion of a bubble around it marking its spacetime, till it’s broken by outside sea causing synchronization. Immediately after it is broken into, that there is commencement of another bubble around which expands till it gets breached again. From the time it initiates a new bubble to the time it gets broken into, there is internal spacetime desynchronized with outside spacetime – when it gets broken into there is *instantaneous* synchronization. This way we have continual spreading of bubbles about bodies in spacetime that keeps getting burst. This situation is approximated in classical physics as continuously synchronized spacetime. If a bubble exists long enough or is stable due to certain physical conditions, we have inside it a quantum system with all the quantum mechanics features on display.

When a bubble representing quantum system’s spacetime is expanding and faces an outside *obstacle *like screen with holes, it will pass through all holes, interfere with each other (expansion in Huygens’ way), and have internal bubble (elementary particle) confined to this outside quantum bubble of spacetime. This forces a particle to remain in the interference fringes. A bubble representing the elementary particle inside another bubble representing quantum system’s spacetime can be anywhere inside it, confined. We can only guess its location in space and in time.

This image helps us in picturing annihilation and creation of particles, wherein one bubble gets *annihilated *into another, or a bubble gets disintegrated into more bubbles. This image also very vividly helps in understanding what happens in an observation process – we break into a bubble, consuming it immediately into our sea – *exactly akin to when *wave collapses as its internal spacetime gets synchronized with external spacetime. Bubbles, while having an identity themselves, have effects on surrounding water due to their global aspects like volume, rotation (leading to dragging of immediate layers outside) etc. Surrounding water also has an effect like those of pressure or imparting or modifying rotation of bubbles etc. These global effects do not convey information about internal individual events – only global aspects of bubbles. These effects however represent all the forces due to any parameter of an elementary particle that is represented by global aspect of spacetime representing this particle that causes these effects. As an example, we will identify one global aspect of a closed spacetime that represents electric charge of the particle represented by that spacetime, and effects of this aspect will be identified with electromagnetic field that this particle produces.

With this model of our universe – called MASK Model of Nested Universes, we move on to appreciate some facets of quantum world that otherwise look so formidable to be acceptable to our common sense. First, a quick look at three phenomena we began our journey with.

Desynchronization and Three Phenomena

[1] This is at variance with situation in Classical physics, where due to synchronization, we have spacetime duration ds^{2} = g_{ij}dx^{i}dx^{j} invariant and exactly same for all observers.[2]

[2] This was first envisaged by Ernest Mach and generally goes under name of Mach’s Principle.

[3] Incidentally this analysis states that once a horizon is formed, there is no way we can apply classical physics to estimate whether or how internal spacetime of the black hole will continue to shrink to a singularity. Nature abhors naked singularity [Penrose and Hawking] and this means that before singularity is achieved by classical laws, a horizon will be formed to encompass possible future singularity and once this happens we may not be able to simply not apply classical laws to these possible future singularities.