## THREE QUANTUM PHENOMENA

We intend to propose one facet of Spacetime in physics that may explain more coherently reason for ‘two realms’ of physics – classical and quantum. To demonstrate this facet of Spacetime we will discuss three basic phenomena in the quantum realm that demonstrate basic aspects of quantum spacetime, especially those that seem to be at variance with spacetime described by general theory of relativity. These three phenomena are radioactivity, interference of light and quantum entanglement.

*Radioactivity*: One of the basic facets of this phenomenon is that it is impossible to predict which radioactive atom out of a heap of radioactive atoms will disintegrate next. We can say that 50% of this heap of atoms will disintegrate in next certain 'period' called half life period; however we cannot predict whether a particular atom will disintegrate. Though all the atoms are identical, some of them will disintegrate in next few microseconds and some of them may disintegrate in next billion years. This loss of predictability is not because of absence of any information to the observer but it is inherent in the system. It is as if time being felt by an atom – *internal time of the observed* - is totally desynchronous with time being felt by the observer – *external time*, and also with that being felt by any other atom – *internal time of this other atom*. Seeming relationship between these two times in terms of half life period and some kind of predictability for an aggregate is not due to any 'relationship' between these two times but because law of large numbers come into play in an aggregate giving semblance of some relationship while at individual level there is no relationship to be discerned. There seems to be complete disregard of observer’s time by individual atom! This fact that 'times' being felt by two entities in the universe – one atom and one observer can be totally asynchronous requires fundamental change in our understanding. Newton envisioned a common and equally flowing time independent of anything. For Einstein, though he introduced relativity of times being felt by different objects moving relatively to each other, these times were always related to each other through definite equations involving relative speeds and always *knowable* *(calculable) *by other observers. But may be we have to go full distance and say that not only two times being felt by two entities in the universe can be relative and periods unequal but these two times can be completely asynchronous, with no *relation between the two*. This happens for two systems that are 'isolated' from each other in a way that does not permit any possibility of any convention of synchronization to be applicable *as there is no exchange of any information between these two systems possible*. Unless observer breaks into ‘spacetime of atom’, there is no way synchronization to be possible*.* [1]

*Interference of light*: It is very well known result of experiments that even when wave nature of light is given away to particle nature of quanta by making light so feeble that one quanta is emitted at one time, interference pattern appears on the screen when enough number of photons have struck the screen after passage through screen with holes to strike the observation plate. That is individual quanta interfere with themselves and 'probabilistically' hit the screen at different locations, so that aggregate pattern on the screen looks like interference pattern. When the light is not feeble, interference pattern is at once available because lots of photons strike the screen within a short duration of observation. This phenomenon has a very curious aspect: for interfering entity like photon (or any particle), some part of the observer's universe is *unavailable*. What this means is that the space being felt by the interfering photons is 'different' from the space of the observer. Thus the space being seen by 'observed' is desynchronized with space being seen by observer. It is not that the photon is seeing any ‘hole’ in its space – if one imagines what photon ‘sees’ as its space, it will be clear that it sees a space as connected and as continuous as we see our spacetime. It is being confined to its space and is ‘directed’ by it. When we say an entity is *being directed by spacetime,* it is meant in the same way that we imagine macroscopic bodies belonging to our space getting directed in Einstein’s conception of spacetime. We are postulating that though space of photon is desynchronized with space of outside observer, internally photon is following same classical physics that we see macroscopic bodies belonging to our space following. *The desynchronization of space being experienced by photon and space being experienced by observer, continues till outside observer breaks into it, by either observing motion of photon through holes in the intermediate screen or by creating a situation wherein this information is retrievable i.e. by ensuring information gets encoded in spacetime of observer too.* Crucial point to note here is that, as well known, if any attempt is made to decide or any methodology is devised to extract information about which slit photon actually passed, interference pattern disappears. Even if no attempt is made but if possibility is created that this information can *somehow* be retrieved, this pattern disappears. This is because any such attempt or creation of any possibility of retrieving this information necessarily 'breaks' into space available to photon, which is otherwise desynchronized with space of the observer, leading to establishment of 'synchronicity' of two spaces which in turn forces photons to experience the same space as being seen by the observer, destroying any effect that is generated due to desynchronization of two spaces. One may note here that 'collapsing of wave' can be imagined as 'establishment of synchronicity between two spaces'.

*Quantum entanglement*: Previous two phenomena hinted at desynchronized time and desynchronized space experienced by observer and the observed. Quantum entanglement phenomenon demonstrates that observed and observer can have totally disconnected wholesome space-times. If two entangled particles are created, and are left undisturbed by observer, they will have their own-sharedspace-time, totally unconnected to observer's space-time. This space-time of the entangled pair will respect internally all the conservation principles and all principles established by relativity theory and we should not be surprised at finding that these principles are observed even if two pairs are spatially separated and each particle is suppose to choose its observed parameter in the experiment 'probabilistically'! Phenomenon of quantum entanglement looks impossible to classical physics because of three aspects of it: probabilistic nature of quantum laws in predicting a value for an observable, spatial separation between two particles and instantaneous selection of values of any observable by two particles so as to keep conservation laws intact. These all three aspects are explained if we take a leap of understanding that space-time experienced by observed and observer may be totally different while remaining complete whole and internally entangled individually. This phenomenon also proves a critical point that should be pleasing to ontologically inclined physicists. Fact that two particles belonging to one spacetime are ‘entangled’ is like following Mach’s principle – when we say that ‘far off’ bodies belonging to our spacetime cause *inertia* i.e. effect of spacetime on our neighborhood, we are stating that, however far, all the bodies exchanging information of events being undergone by them belong to one spacetime and are ‘entangled’. Common spacetime for different bodies has emerged due to synchronization among themselves and as an emergent phenomenon spacetime is *always* internally consistent with conservation laws that leads to entanglement with each other. To stress, we are stating that quantum entanglement of particles belonging to quantum spacetime that is completely desynchronized with spacetime of observer is a phenomenon exactly akin to Mach’s phenomenon for the observer whereby all bodies, however ‘far’ from each other, belonging to observer’s spacetime, affect each other in a very intimate way, assigning inertia to each other.[2]

Now that we have made our observations about existence of desynchronization of time, space or wholesome spacetime of quantum systems and outside observer’s spacetime, and have realized that spacetimes being experienced by two entities may be independent of each other, existing individually on their own, we will proceed to elevate these observations into a postulate and to state our *extension *to concept of spacetime as proposed by Newton and Einstein by incorporating postulate of Desynchronization. This will lead to our MASK Model of Nested Universes. After this is done, we will proceed to outline all the differences in quantum and classical physical systems that can be explained using this MASK Model.

I will like to state at the outset of our journey with this postulate, that we will encounter two kinds of statements on ontology following from this postulate– first kind would quite surely and clearly follow from discussion and can reasonably be thought of having been proved by giving all the intermediate steps of deduction, and second kind would be depending upon heuristics reasoning and may also require educated guess or leap of faith across some steps un-bridged by mathematics yet. First kind of statements will be called M statements and second kind will be christened S statements.

Please also note that we would be touching in this Part I, certain fundamental aspects of quantum physics vis-à-vis classical physics, and continue discussion like explanation of Standard Model, Renormalization requirement of different field theories etc. in further parts of this study.

Principle of Desynchronization And MASK Model of Nested Universes

[1] Einstein’s paper [1] on special relativity can be considered as laying down effect of synchronization. Current paper can be considered as an attempt to demonstrate effects of no-possibility of synchronization and hence those of desynchronization.

[2] This is also very close to Bohm’s philosophy of *wholeness *of quantum systems. This will also hint towards how gravity is to be treated in quantum systems.